Gujrat (Urdu: گُجرات), is a city in Punjab Province of Pakistan and is 17th to 20th in the List of most populated metropolitan areas in Pakistan because Jhang, DG khan and Mardan all very close in terms of population figure. It is the capital of Gujrat District and the Gujrat Tehsil subdivision in the Punjab Province. Gujrat city is divided into two circles, City Circle (Head office Gujrat City) and Sadar Circle (Head office Jalalpur Jattan). The major sources of livelihood among the Gujrat populace are agriculture and small industries. Gujrat is also known as the city of King Porus.
Gujrat (not to be confused with the Indian state of Gujarat) is situated on the bank of Chenab River, the headquarter of Gujrat district, and is one of the most famous cities in Pakistan.
Gujrat was founded by Raja Bachhan Pal Gurjar in 460 BC, according to General Cunningham, the British historian. Historical consensus is that it existed in the time of Alexander the Great, and that the Mong’s Raja Porus put up a fierce challenge to Alexander’s invasion at the bank of the Jehlum River. The establishment of Gujrat City was realised early in the 19th century after the British Empire and in support of regional landlords (e.g., Daswandi Khan of Daswandi Pura).
In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region. Gujrat became a part of the Muslim Sultanate of Delhi when the Persian noble Sultan Shahab-ud-Din Muhammad Ghauri conquered Punjab in 1185. Gujrat slowly developed as medieval town and many Muslim Sufi missionaries converted the local Gurjar population to Islam. During the Mughal period, Mughal royalty frequently travelled through the district en route to Kashmir. When King Jahangir died while he was returning from Kashmir, the news of his death was suppressed to avoid any chaos in the empire. His abdominal organs were taken out and buried in Gujrat. To this day, an annual festival is held commemorating this event, commonly known as the “Festival of Jahangir”.
Shah Daula is a Sufi saint of the city and he met Sikh’s sixth Guru Har Gobind (1595–1644) when he was passing though Gujrat. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Gujrat. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. Between 1765–1846 Gujrat was occupied by the Sikhs.
Two main battles between British and Sikh armies were fought in this district: the Battle of Chillianwala and the Battle of Gujrat. Only after winning the battle of Gujrat on 22 February 1849 did the British declare victory in Punjab.
After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Gujrat district. Muslims refugees from East Punjab, Haryana, Jammu started arriving and crossed the border into Pakistan; many were given land in Gujrat District to settle.
There are many historical buildings and ruins in and around Gujrat. The Grand Trunk Road, commonly abbreviated as G.T. Road, built by emperor Sher Shah Suri, also passes through Gujrat. The road still exists today, along with its period stone wall. Historical buildings and ruins can be found in nearby towns throughout the area.
Language and demography.
As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, Punjabi language is spoken by 95%. Punjabi dialects spoken in the district are
- Majhi or Standard (Majority)
- Potohari (Few people near jehlum district)
- Shah puri (Few people speak this dialect)
Other Languages include:
Urdu being national language is spoken and understood.
English is also understood and spoken by the sizable educated people.
According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the total population of Gujrat district was 2,048,008 of which 1,026,000 are males and 1,022,000 are females, with a population density of 642 persons per square kilometre. Over 25.62% of the population was recorded as being urban
Gujrat is an ancient city of Pakistan located between two famous rivers, Jhelum River and Chenab River. Because of its proximity to the rivers, the land is good for cultivation of rice and sugarcane as main crops. It is bounded to the northeast by Jammu and Kashmir, to the northwest by the Jhelum River, to the east and southeast by the Chenab River, separating it from the districts of Gujranwala and Sialkot; and to the west by Mandi Bahauddin District.
The city has a moderate climate. During the peak of summer, the daytime temperature shoots up to 45 °C (113 °F), but the hot spells are relatively short due to the proximity of the Azad Kashmir Mountains. During the winter, the minimum temperature may fall below 2 °C (36 °F). The average rainfall at Gujrat is 67 centimetres (26 in).
Gujrat produces low-temperature pottery and ceramic goods, hukkas,or water pipe, artistic handicrafts, flower pots, changairian (made from the leaves of palm and date trees), cotton mates and woolen shawls. Sohni Mahiwal is a famous folk tale of the Punjab region. The heroine of the story, named “Sohni” (a Punjabi word meaning “beautiful”), came from the Gujrat region. She used to meet her lover, Mahinwal, by crossing the Chenab river, sitting on a pitcher. The tale is still told to this day and is an essential part of Punjabi culture. The anniversary of Kanwan-Wali Sarkar near Karuan Wala Gujrat is celebrated with a fair in August every year. He is known as one of the greatest saints that ever lived. A famous miracle was when water in a well actually turned to milk for a period of time. The well is still there. Some locals attach significance to the fact that it often rains heavily around the time of the fair (monsoon). “Wengi Wali Sarkar” anniversary in 5 January every year at village Haji Wala near Karianwala Tehsil and District Gujrat.[clarification needed]the shrine of hazrat shahdola(a famous saint in Punjab) is also in gujrat near shahdola choki. the anniversary of (hazrat shahdola sarkar)is celebrated in June every year.
Wheat and Rice are the main crops grown in the district. Besides, Sugarcane, Bajra, Tobacco, Maize, Jawar, Masoor, Moong, Mash, Oil Seed such as Mustard and Sun/Flower are also grown in minor quantities in the district.
Citrus and Guavas are main fruits grown in the district. Besides, Mango, Jaman and Banana are also grown in minor quantities in the district
Turnip, Potatoes and Cauliflower are main vegetables grown in the district. Besides, Carrot, Peas, Onion, Tomato, Garlic, Chillies and Ladyfinger are also grown in the district in minor quantities
Economy and industry
Gujrat is also known for its clay, with which the locals have long produced quality pottery. The city also produces fine furniture. Over the last few decades, Gujrat has also attained a name in the manufacture and export of electric fans including GFC fan, Pak Fans, Royal Fans and Metro Fans. Gujrat is now well’ly known by the trading company of medicines, (GSM Corporation). Gujrat is also home to one of the two largest shoe manufacturing companies in Pakistan, namely Service Industries, which runs a large shoe factory in the city.
There are about 1,059 cottage-level and small- to large-scale industrial units operating in the district. Rice production and export is another major product of Gujrat. There are many other factories engaged in manufacturing of electrical goods, electric motors and rice cleaning mills. Most are cottage industries, providing employment to a large number of people and accounting, in aggregate, for more than 90 percent of the domestic market. gujrat has the highest percentage of the population abroad compare to any other district in Pakistan. Gujrat leads in foreign currency remittances in the country.
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan named the region “Khita-e-Younan”, or “territory resembling ancient Greece”, in reference to the high number of educational institutes present in the area. The following universities and colleges are locate
- University of Gujrat Main/Hafiz Hayat Campus,2 K.M off Main Jalalpure Jattan Road,Link University/Hafiz Hayat Road.
- University of Gujrat,Nawaz Sharif Medical College, 2 K.M off Main Jalalpure Jattan Road, Link University/ Hafiz Hayat Road.
- University of Gujrat,Fatima Jinnah College, Fawara Chowk
- University of Gujrat, College for Boys, School of Law, Modern Languages Learning Centre, G.T Road.
- University of Gujrat Murghzar College For Girls, Bhimber Road, Murghazar
- University of Gujrat, College for Girls, Railways Road.
- University of Lahore, Chenab Campus, Gujrat.
- University of Central Punjab, Gujrat Campus, Gujrat.
Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Gujrat Campus, Gujrat (Under construction)
- Govt. Kamli Wala Girls High School Near Railway Road Gujrat.
- Institute of Modern Practical Arts & Communicational Technologies (IMPACT College Gujrat)
- Hashmat Medical and Dental College, Jalalpur Jattan. (recog. PM&DC)
- Govt. Zamindar College, Bhimber Road opposite Aziz Bhatti Hospital
- Punjab College of Commerce, Gujrat
- Govt. College of Commerce, Jalalpure Jattan Road, Bolay.
- Govt. Commerce Institute for Girls,Jalalpure Jattan Road near Green Town.
- Govt. Vocational Training Institute for Girls, Jalalpure Jattan Road near Green Town.
- Sanat Zaar, Jalalpure Jattan Road.
- Govt. Swedish Pakistani collage of Tecnology, Servis More.
- Govt. Technical Training Institute, G.T Road, near Servis Morde.
- Govt Miss froze-o-din girls high school(near walit sah musjid, jinah road)
- Govt. Fan manufacturing Institute, Small Industries Estate.
- Govt. Ceramics Institute, Small Industries Estate.
- Govt. Furniture Institute, Small Industries Estate.
- Govt. College for Teacher’s Training, Court Road, Civil Lines.
- Govt.Public High School No.2(Boys) Railway road Gujrat.
- Govt.Muslim Parda School (For Girls) Staff gala Gujrat.
- Govt. Miss Fatima Jinnah High School (for girls)muhallah fattu pura gujrat city,
- University of Munawwar-ul-islam Main Jalalpure Jattan Road Link umi-pk.com .
- Punjab Group of Colleges, G.T road
- The City School Gujrat Campus.
- The Learners’ Heaven School, Green Town Near Old Civil Lines.
- Global City School Dinga Morde.
- Bloomfield Hall School, Jinnah Road.
- Gujrat Homeopathic Medical College.
- Gujrat Group of Colleges, Bhimber Road Murghzar and Model Town.
- Vision Science College, for boys Gujrat.
- Ajmery Group of Colleges
- CMH medical college, Kharian (proposed)
- Jinnah College of Commerce (for Boys)
- Jinnah College of Commerce and I.T (for Girls)
- Jinnah College of Education Gujrat
- Chenab Group of Colleges, Jalalpure Jattan Road and Gharibpura Road.
- ILM College, G.T Road
- Jamia Islamia Le-Binat-Ul-Islam (religious)
- Govt. Comprehensive School, G.T. Road (Govt. Jamia high School)
- Bright Model School (BM Edu. Campus)
- Municipal Model High School for Boys
- Municipal Model High School
- Shaukat Model High School muhallah fattupura gujrat city
- Ghazali Public School Amana Abad
- Government Zamindar High School
- Pakistan International Public School (P.I.P.S) Shadman
- Kids Galaxy High School, Gujrat
- Dar-e-Arqam Model High School Gujrat
- Govt. Muslim High School Gujrat
- County Public High School Gujrat
- Roots Foundation High School Gujrat
- Standard Model High Gujrat
- Beaconhouse School System (Pakistan) G.T Road near River Garden Housing
- Jinnah Public School (Near UOG Hafiz Hayat Campus)
- Government Secondary School, Dhuma Malka, Gujrat
- Gujrat Law College
- Grammar School Gujrat
- H.B.A. Girls Higher Secondary School Peroshah
- Superior College, G.T Road Gujrat
- The Cathedral School Gujrat
- The Chenab School, Near State life building, Gujrat
- The Educator Bara Dari Campus Gujrat
- Quaid Grammar School Sook Klan Gujrat
- The Risers School and College Deona Mandi Gujrat
- Govt high school Kahpranwalla Gujrat
- Govt.High School Dittewal
- Govt Islamia High School Kunjah
- Govt Islamia High School Gujrat
- Captain Amir Shaheed School Gujrat
- Govt High School saroki
- Govt. Boys High School Nagrianwala
- General Raheel Shareef, Army Chief
- Maj. Shabbir Sharif, Nishan-e-Haider
- Maj. Muhammad Akram,Nishan-e-Haider
- Orya Maqbool Jan famous columnist, writer, poet
- Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry, Former President of Pakistan 1972 -1977, Deputy Speaker N.A 1965–1969.
- Chaudhry Shujat Hussain former Prime Minister of Pakistan
- Nawabzada Gazanfar Ali Gul former Federal Minister of Pakistan
- Muhammad Alam Lohar (1928 – 3 July 1979), (Punjabi, Urdu: محمد عالم لوہار), from a village not far from Gujrat. Was one of the most prominent Punjabi folk music singers.
- Mian Muhammad Afzal Hayat former Chief Minister of Punjab and served as ambassador in different countries
Qamar Zaman Kaira Chaudhery Qamar Zaman Kaira is Former Governor Gilgit-Baltistan, served in various portfolios as Federal minister.
- Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi former Chief Minister Punjab & Federal Minister.
- Maj Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed ( Nishan-e-Haider )
- Chaudhry Ahmed Mukhtar Minister for Defence, Govt.of Pakistan
- Chaudhry Muhammad Jaffar Iqbal Vice-President of PMLN Punjab
- Mian Imran Masood former MPA of Gujrat and Minister of Education Punjab.
- Inayat Hussain Bhatti, Folk Singer, religious scholar, and Punjabi writer
- Sharif Kunjahi, Punjabi poet belonging to Kunjah, recipient of Pride of Performance
- Anwar Masood, Pakistani poet. He writes in Punjabi, Urdu and Persian.
- Sabiha Khanum, actress and wife of actor Musa Raza (Santosh Kumar)
- Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi, Former Chief Minister of Punjab
The district is linked with Gujranwala, Jhelum, and Mandi Bahauddin districts with 1,019 kilometres (633 mi) of paved roads. The main Peshawar – Karachi railway line passes through the city and Gujrat is among the important railway stations of this route. The district is linked with Jhelum, Mandi Bahauddin, Sargodha and Gujranwala districts through Pakistan Railway Network. Gujrat is located on the biggest highway of the country i.e. G.T Road which connects Karachi to Lahore and Peshawer via Hyderabad, Sukkhur, Bahawalpure, Multan, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Kharian, Jhelum, Rawalpindi/Islamabad. Attock and Nowshehra. It is also known as N-5. NHA has built a bypass over N-5 in Gujrat to avoid traffic problems on the highway.. There are three major roads which start from Gujrat i.e., Gujrat_Sargodha Highway, Gujrat-Bhimber Highway and Gujrat-Jalalpure Jattan-Chamb Highway. Daewoo Express has a terminal at GT Road Gujrat, opened on 14 May 2004, and connects Gujrat with Lahore.General Bus Stand and Municipal Wagon Stand are the biggest road transport terminal in Gujrat. Gujrat Railway Station is the major station on Karachi-Peshawer main railway line.Gujrat has a railway link via Akhtar Karnana to Mandibahauddin and Sargodha districts. Gujrat airport does not host any commercial flights, and people use the nearby Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore and Sialkot International Airport for domestic and international flights. There is a non-commercial airport in the near Model Town and Gujrat-Bhimber Highway, which Pakistan Air Force uses to train pilots.
Beside some active political parties there are various social clubs in Gujrat which are actively working for the social well-being of the city some of them are mentioned as follows,
Gujrat Chenab Lions Club, Dr.Akram Mirza Lions Club, Progressive Lions Club, Young Fellows Lions Club, Friends Lion Club, AHM clubs
Zahoor Ellahi Cricket Stadium is the only one cricket stadium in Gujrat city. It is located in Kutchehary Chowk at the junction of Jalalpur Road and Bhimber Kotla Road. It was outwardly rebuild during the last government of Pervez Musharraf and Chaudharys’. Many shops are set up around its wall.Previously Zahoor Elahi Cricket Stadium was known as Horse Show Ground. The name was given to it because a horse show was performed at this place
References : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujrat_city